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The Handbook of COURAGE published

Ulf Brunnbauer and Jacqueline Nießer as leading project participants and handbook contributors


In November, the "Handbook of Courage" has been published in Budapest - the handbook is a result of the transnational Courage project that has been funded in the "Horizon 2020" scheme of the European Union to explore the world of the compellingly rich heritage of cultural opposition in Eastern Europe. Prof. Dr. Ulf Brunnbauer and Jacqueline Nießer, M.A., both members of the Graduate School in Regensburg, are leading participants in the Courage project and contributed to the handbook.

The handbook is intended primarily to further a subtle understanding of the complex and multifaceted nature of cultural opposition and its legacy from the perspective of the various collections held in public institutions or by private individuals across the region. Through its focus on material heritage, the handbook provides new perspectives on the history of dissent and cultural non-conformism in the former socialist countries of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

The volume is comprised of contributions by over 60 authors from a range of different academic and national backgrounds who share their insights into the topic. It offers focused discussions from comparative and transnational perspectives of the key themes and prevailing forms of opposition in the region, including non-conformist art, youth sub-cultures, intellectual dissent, religious groups, underground rock, avantgarde theater, exile, traditionalism, ethnic revivalism, censorship, and surveillance.

The handbook provides its reader with a concise synthesis of the existing scholarship and suggests new avenues for further research.

Further Reading

Balázs Apor, Petér Apor, Sándor Horváth (eds.): The Handbook of COURAGE: Cultural Opposition and its Heritage in Eastern Europe, Budapest: HAS – Research Centre for the Humanities of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2018. URL:

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